情狀副詞

情狀副詞透露某件事是如何發生的,一般會放在主要動詞或受詞後。

舉例
  • He swims well.
  • He ran quickly.
  • She spoke softly.
  • James coughed loudly to attract her attention.
  • He plays the flute beautifully.(在直接受詞後)
  • He ate the chocolate cake greedily.(在直接受詞後)

情狀副詞並不能放在動詞和直接受詞之間,必須放在動詞前或句尾。

舉例
  • He ate greedily the chocolate cake. [不正確]
  • He ate the chocolate cake greedily. [正確]
  • He greedily ate the chocolate cake. [正確]
  • He gave us generously the money. [不正確]
  • He gave us the money generously. [正確]
  • He generously gave us the money. [正確]

如果動詞的受格前有個介系詞,就要將情狀副詞放在介系詞前或受詞後。

舉例
  • The child ran happily towards his mother.
  • The child ran towards his mother happily.

如果動詞沒有受詞(不及物動詞),情狀副詞就一律應緊接在動詞之後。

舉例
  • The town grew quickly after 1997.
  • He waited patiently for his mother to arrive.

這些常見的情狀副詞 well、badly、hard、fast 幾乎都是緊接在動詞後。

舉例
  • He swam well despite being tired.
  • The rain fell hard during the storm.

當句中有多個動詞,副詞的位置就會變得很重要。如果副詞放在主要動詞前或後,就只會修飾那個動詞。如果副詞放在語句後,則會修飾該語句描述的整個動作。從以下例句中,您會發現意思的差異。

例句 意思
She quickly agreed to re-type the letter. 迅速地同意
She agreed quickly to re-type the letter. 迅速地同意
She agreed to re-type the letter quickly. 迅速地重新打
He quietly asked me to leave the house. 安靜地詢問
He asked me quietly to leave the house. 安靜地詢問
He asked me to leave the house quietly. 安靜地離開
文學上的用法

有時候情狀副詞會放在動詞 + 受詞之前,增添強調的意味。

舉例
  • He gently woke the sleeping woman.
  • She angrily slammed the door.

有些作家會把情狀副詞放在句首,引起我們的注意或好奇。

舉例
  • Slowly she picked up the knife.
  • Roughly he grabbed her arm.