不定代名詞

不定代名詞指的是不特定的人、地方或事物。在英語中,有些不定代名詞是用量詞或個別詞形成,這類不定代名詞是以 any、some、every 和 no 開頭。

  地方 事物
所有 everyone
everybody
everywhere everything
部分(肯定) someone
somebody
somewhere something
部分(否定) anyone
anybody
anywhere anything
no one
nobody
nowhere nothing

以 some 和 any 開頭的不定代名詞描述不定、不完整的量,就如單獨使用 some 和 any 的方式一樣。

不定代名詞在句中的位置跟名詞一樣。

名詞 不定代名詞
I would like to go to Paris this summer. I would like to go somewhere this summer.
Jim gave me this book. Someone gave me this book.
I won't tell your secret to Sam. I won't tell your secret to anyone.
I bought my school supplies at the mall. I bought everything at the mall.

肯定句

在肯定句中,以 some 開頭的不定代名詞描述的是不定的量。以 every 開頭的不定代名詞是描述完整的量。而以 no 開頭的不定代名詞則是描述不存在、不在場的人或事物;通常會用在具有否定意思的肯定句,但這類句子並不是否定句,畢竟句中沒有 not 這個字。

例句
 
  • Everyone is sleeping in my bed.
  • Someone is sleeping in my bed.
  • No one is sleeping in my bed.
  • I gave everything to Sally.
  • He saw something in the garden.
  • There is nothing to eat.
  • I looked everywhere for my keys.
  • Keith is looking for somewhere to live.
  • There is nowhere as beautiful as Paris.

以 any 開頭的不定代名詞可以用在肯定句,跟 every 的意思很接近:任何人、任何地方、任何事物。

例句
  • They can choose anything from the menu.
  • You may invite anybody you want to your birthday party.
  • We can go anywhere you'd like this summer.
  • He would give anything to get into Oxford.
  • Fido would follow you anywhere.

否定句

否定句只能用 any 開頭的不定代名詞。

例句
  • I don't have anything to eat.
  • She didn't go anywhere last week.
  • I can't find anyone to come with me.

在很多情況下,當句中含有 any 開頭的不定代名詞,只要將原先的不定代名詞改為以 no 開頭的不定代名詞,就可以變成帶有否定意義的肯定句。不過這樣的改寫會改變句子的意思。句中若含有 no 開頭的不定代名詞,語氣會變得更強烈,而且會傳達出防衛、絕望、憤怒等情緒。

舉例
  • I don't know anything about it. = 中立
  • I know nothing about it. = 防衛
  • I don't have anybody to talk to. = 中立
  • I have nobody to talk to. = 絕望
  • There wasn't anything we could do. = 中立
  • There was nothing we could do. = 防衛/憤怒

否定問句

以 every、some、和 any 開頭的不定代名詞可以用在否定問句上,這類問句一般可以用 Yes/No 來回答。

以 any 和 every 開頭的不定代名詞會被用在 Yes/No 問句上;而以 some 開頭的不定代名詞,會透露出我們已知道該問題的答案、或對答案有所懷疑。

例句
  • Is there anything to eat?
  • Did you go anywhere last night?
  • Is everyone here?
  • Have you looked everywhere?

只要在問句加上否定的縮寫 n't,即成為反問句。當說話的人丟出這樣類型的問句,其實是想得到否定的答案。

例句
  • Isn't there anything to eat?
  • Didn't you go anywhere last night?
  • Isn't everyone here?
  • Haven't you looked everywhere?

以 some 開頭的代名詞只用在問句上。通常我們會知道問句的答案,或者不會得到 Yes/No 的回答(例如在提出邀請、要求等),問這類問題的人,通常會想得到肯定的回答。

例句
  • Are you looking for someone?
  • Have you lost something?
  • Are you going somewhere?
  • Could somebody help me, please? = 要求
  • Would you like to go somewhere this weekend? = 邀請

如果這些問句被改為反問句,語氣就會變得更絕對。在這種情況下,發問者百分之百確認他會得到肯定的回答。

例句
  • Aren't you looking for someone?
  • Haven't you lost something?
  • Aren't you going somewhere?
  • Couldn't somebody help me, please?
  • Wouldn't you like to go somewhere this weekend?