不定詞

不定詞的構成

不定詞是動詞的原型。在英語中,當我們談到不定詞時,一般指的是現在式不定詞,這是最常見的一種。然而還有其他四種型態不定詞:完成式型態的不定詞完成進行式型態的不定詞進行式型態的不定詞以及被動語態的不定詞

不定詞又分為兩種型態:

  • 帶 to 的不定詞 = to + 動詞原型
  • 不帶 to 的不定詞(又稱「零不定詞」)= 動詞原型

現在式不定詞就是您在字典上會看到的動詞型態。

帶 to 的不定詞 零不定詞
to sit sit
to eat eat
to have have
to remember remember

否定型不定詞則是在任何型態的不定詞前加「not」即可。

舉例
  • I decided not to go to London.
  • He asked me not to be late.
  • I'd like you not to sing so loudly.
  • I'd rather not eat meat.
  • I might not come.

帶 to 的不定詞的作用

帶 to 的不定詞用於很多句構上,通常表達某事的意圖,或者表達某人對某件事的看法。帶有 to 的不定詞可以接的動詞類型有很多,這部分可以參考接不定詞的動詞

帶 to 的不定詞表明某動作的意圖或目的

在這種情況下,不定詞的 to 意思就跟 in order to 或 so as to 一樣。

舉例
  • She came to collect her pay cheque.
  • The three bears went to find firewood.
  • I am calling to ask you about dad.
  • You sister has gone to finish her homework.
帶 to 的不定詞用作句中的主詞

這是正式用法,多用於英語正式書寫上,口語上較少見。

舉例
  • To be or not to be, that is the question.
  • To know her is to love her.
  • To visit the Grand Canyon is my life-long dream.
  • To understand statistics, that is our aim.
帶 to 的不定詞表明某件事可以被用來做的事

在這種句型中,帶 to 的不定詞接著是名詞或代名詞。

舉例
  • The children need a garden to play in.
  • I would like a sandwich to eat.
  • I don't have anything to wear.
  • Would you like something to drink?
帶 to 的不定詞接在形容詞後

帶 to 的不定詞接在形容詞後的句型很常見,這類語句的公式如下:
主詞 + Be 動詞 + 形容詞 + (for/of 某人) + 帶 to 的不定詞 + (句子的其餘部分)

主詞 + Be 動詞 + 形容詞 (+ for/of 某人) + 帶 to 的不定詞 (+ 句子的其餘部分)
It is good   to talk.  
It is good of you to talk to me.
It is important   to be patient.  
It is important for Jake to be patient with his little brother.
I am happy   to be here.
The dog is naughty   to destroy our couch.
評論某事時用帶 to 的不定詞

在對某個名詞評論時使用帶有 to 的不定詞,公式如下:
主詞 + Be 動詞 + 名詞片語 + 帶 to 的不定詞

主詞 + Be 動詞 + 名詞片語 + 帶 to 的不定詞
It was a stupid place to park.
That is a dangerous way to behave.
What you said was a rude thing to say.
This is the right thing to do.
Those were the wrong kind of eggs to buy.
Jim is the best person to hire.
副詞和帶 to 的不定詞一起使用

帶 to 的不定詞經常與副詞 too 和 enough 一起用來表達滿意或不滿背後的原因。在句型上,too 和 enough 會被放在其修飾的形容詞、副詞或名詞的前面或後面,就如沒使用帶有 to 不定詞的方式一樣;接著在後面接帶 to 不定詞,表達數量或分量過多、充足或不足的理由。通常帶 to 不定詞以及後面接的所有字詞都可以移除,而剩餘的句子在文法上都還是正確的。

舉例
  • There's too much sugar to put in this bowl.
  • I had too many books to carry.
  • This soup is too hot to eat.
  • She was too tired to work.
  • He arrived too late to see the actors.
  • I've had enough food to eat.
  • She's old enough to make up her own mind.
  • There isn't enough snow to ski on.
  • You're not old enough to have grand-children!
帶 to 不定詞和疑問詞一起使用

ask、decide、explain、forget、know、show、tell、understand 等動詞可以接在 where、how、what、who、when 等疑問詞後,加帶 to 不定詞即可。

舉例
  • She asked me how to use the washing machine.
  • Do you understand what to do?
  • Tell me when to press the button.
  • I've forgotten where to put this little screw.
  • I'm not sure I know who to call.

零不定詞(不帶 to 的不定詞)的作用

零不定詞接在助動詞後
舉例
  • She can't speak to you.
  • He should give her some money.
  • Shall I talk to him?
  • Would you like a cup of coffee?
  • I might stay another night in the hotel.
  • They must leave before 10.00 a.m.
零不定詞用在感知動詞後

與感知動詞一起使用,句型為動詞 + 受詞 + 零不定詞

舉例
  • He saw her fall from the cliff.
  • We heard them close the door.
  • They saw us walk toward the lake.
  • She felt the spider crawl up her leg.
零不定詞用在 make 和 let 等動詞後
舉例
  • Her parents let her stay out late.
  • Let's go to the cinema tonight.
  • You made me come with you.
  • Don't make me study that boring grammar book!
零不定詞用在 had better 的措辭後
舉例
  • We had better take some warm clothing.
  • She had better ask him not to come.
  • We had better reserve a room in the hotel.
  • You'd better give me your address.
  • They had better work harder on their homework.
零不定詞用在疑問詞 why 後

在表達建議時,疑問詞 why 後會接零不定詞。

舉例
  • Why wait until tomorrow?
  • Why not ask him now?
  • Why leave before the end of the game?
  • Why walk when we can go in the car?
  • Why not buy a new bed?