非限定關係子句

非限定關係子句會就句中論及的人事物額外補充資訊,但這些資訊並不會指明它談的是何者。就拿這個例句來說:Gorillas, which are large and originate in Africa, can sometimes be found in zoos. 在這個句子中,我們談的是「所有大猩猩」,而不是只有其中幾隻。非限定關係子句會多加補充有關一般大猩猩的資訊,不會限定群體或單一隻大猩猩。如果非限定關係子句從句中移除,剩下的句子文法上仍是正確的,整句話的意思不會有太大的改變,頂多少了些資訊罷了。

非限定關係子句必定包含關係代名詞和動詞,有時也會包含動詞的主詞或受詞,可有可無。非限定子句一般會用逗號或括號來與主要子句隔開。

舉例
  • John's mother, who lives in Scotland, has 6 grandchildren.
  • My friend John, who went to the same school as me, has just written a best-selling novel.
  • My grandmother, who is dead now, came from the North of England.
  • We stopped at the museum, which we had never visited before.
  • I've just come back from London, where John lives..
  • Yesterday I met a woman named Susan, whose husband works in London.

關係代名詞

以下的關係代名詞是用在非限定關係子句,置於非限定子句的句首,而關係代名詞指的是前面提到的名詞。

  事物 地方
主格 who which  
受格 who/whom which where
所有格 whose    
非限定關係子句與限定關係子句的差別

在英語口頭上,限定關係子句常用 that 來取代 who、whom 和 which 等代名詞。但在非限定關係子句中,就不能用 that 來取代其他關係代名詞,也不能像限定關係子句一樣省略關係代名詞。在非限定關係子句中,關係代名詞是不可或缺的,就算關係代名詞是子句中的受格,也不能省略。非限定關係子句一般會用逗號來與主要子句隔開,而限定關係子句通常不用逗號分隔。

舉例
  • He gave me the letter, which was in a blue envelope.(非限定子句:信只有一封,而且是藍色的;這時您必須用 which。)
  • He gave me the letter which/that was in a blue envelope.(限定子句:信不只一封,而且顏色有很多種,而他給我的是藍色的那封信。which 可以被 that 取代,並且不用加逗號。)
  • He gave me the letter, which I read immediately.(非限定子句:信只有一封,而 which 是動詞 read 的受詞,但不能省略。)
  • Stratford-on-Avon, which many people have written about, is Shakespeare's birthplace.(介系詞一般會放在關係子句的句尾。)
  • Stratford-on-Avon, about which many people have written, is Shakespeare's birthplace.(書面用語上常會將介系詞放在代名詞前。)
在非限定子句的引導詞

在關係代名詞前,可以用 all of 或 many of 來引導非限定子句。

 
all of, any of, some of, a few of, both of, each of, either of, half of, many of, most of, much of, none of, one of, two of 等 whom which
舉例
  • There were a lot of people at the party, many of whom I had known for years.
  • There are 14 girls in my class, a few of whom are my friends.
  • He was carrying his belongings, many of which were broken.
  • He had thousands of books, most of which he had read.
  • He picked up a handful of stones, one of which was sharp.
用 which 來指整個主要子句的資訊

在非限定關係子句上,句首 which 可以指前面句子的所有資訊,而不是單指子句前面的那個字。

舉例
  • Chris did really well in his exams, which is quite a surprise.
  • My friends were all hiding in my apartment, which isn't what I'd expected.
  • She's studying to become a doctor, which is difficult.