被動語態

被動語態的作用

被動語態是用來表示對「承受」某動作的人或物的關注,而不是關注「執行」某動作的人或物。換句話說,最重要的人或物變成句中的主詞。

舉例
  • The passive voice is used frequently. (= 我們關注的是被動語態,而不是關注使用被動語態的人)
  • The house was built in 1654. (= 我們關注的是房屋,而不是關注建造房屋的人)
  • The road is being repaired. (= 我們關注的是道路,而不是關注修理道路的人)

有時候我們之所以會被動語態,是因為我們不知道、不想表達執行動作的人或物。

舉例
  • I noticed that a window had been left open.
  • Every year thousands of people are killed on our roads.
  • All the cookies have been eaten.
  • My car has been stolen!

被動語態常用在正式書寫上,改用主動語態會讓您的語句較清楚且容易理解。

被動 主動
A great deal of meaning is conveyed by a few well-chosen words. A few well-chosen words convey a great deal of meaning.
Our planet is wrapped in a mass of gases. A mass of gases wrap around our planet.
Waste materials are disposed of in a variety of ways. The city disposes of waste materials in a variety of ways.

如果在用被動語態時仍想表明執行動作的人或物,這時候就要用介系詞 by。當我們知道做動作的人是誰,也要強調這個人或事物,改用主動語態總是會比較好。

被動 主動
"A Hard Day's Night" was written by the Beatles. The Beatles wrote "A Hard Day's Night".
The movie ET was directed by Spielberg. Spielberg directed the movie ET.
This house was built by my father. My father built this house.

進一步了解所有英語動詞時態的被動語態與同義的主動語態寫法

被動語態的構成

英語的被動語態是以兩個要素組成:
適當的 Be 動詞型態 + 過去分詞

肯定句 否定句 疑問句 否定疑問句
The house was built in 1899. The house wasn't built in 1899. Was the house built in 1899? Wasn't the house built in 1899?
These houses were built in 1899. These houses weren't built in 1899. Were these houses built in 1899? Weren't these houses built in 1899?
被動語態,以 to clean 為例
主詞 + Be 動詞(經過詞形變化) + 過去分詞 + 句子的其餘字詞
現在簡單式
The house is cleaned every day.
現在進行式
The house is being cleaned at the moment.
過去簡單式
The house was cleaned yesterday.
過去進行式
The house was being cleaned last week.
現在完成式
The house has been cleaned since you left.
過去完成式
The house had been cleaned before they arrived.
未來簡單式
The house will be cleaned next week.
未來進行式
The house will be being cleaned tomorrow.
現在條件式
The house would be cleaned if they had visitors.
過去條件式
The house would have been cleaned if it had been dirty.
不定式
The house must be cleaned before we arrive.
帶有不定詞的被動語態

不定被動語態用於情態助動詞後,還有其他多數接不定詞的動詞後。

舉例
  • You have to be tested on your English grammar.
  • John might be promoted next year.
  • She wants to be invited to the party.
  • I expect to be surprised on my birthday.
  • You may be disappointed.
帶有動名詞的被動語態

動名詞用在介系詞後,以及一般會接動名詞的動詞後。

舉例
  • I remember being taught to drive.
  • The children are excited about being taken to the zoo.
  • The children are excited to be taken to the zoo.
  • Most film stars hate being interviewed.
  • Most film stars hate to be interviewed.
  • Poodles like to be pampered.
  • Poodles like being pampered.
to be born 的用法

「to be born」是一種被動型態,而且多數主要用於過去式。然而在某些情況下,使用現在式或未來式也很妥當。

舉例
  • I was born in 1976.
  • Where were you born?
  • Around 100 babies are born in this hospital every week.
  • We don't know on exactly which day the baby will be born.

有時被動語態的構成會用動詞 to get 或 to have 來取代 Be 動詞。關於這部分,可以參考構成被動語態的替代方法