過去完成進行式

過去完成進行式的作用

過去完成進行式相應於現在完成進行式,但涉及比「過去」還要更早的時間。至於現在完成進行式,我們更強調過程

舉例
  • Had you been waiting long before the taxi arrived?
  • We had been trying to open the door for five minutes when Jane found her key.
  • It had been raining hard for several hours and the streets were very wet.
  • Her friends had been thinking of calling the police when she walked in.

這個型態也用於轉述句。相當直述句中的過去進行式和現在完成進行式:

  • Jane said, "I have been gardening all afternoon." = Jane said she had been gardening all afternoon.
  • When the police questioned him, John said, "I was working late in the office that night." = When the police questioned him, John told them he had been working late in the office that night.

過去完成進行式的構成

過去完成進行式是由兩個要素構成——Be 動詞的過去完成式 (=had been) + 現在分詞(動詞原型+ing)。

主詞 had been 動詞原型+ing
I had been walking
肯定句
She had been trying
否定句
She hadn't been sleeping
疑問句
Had you been eating?
否定疑問句
Hadn't they been living?
過去完成進行式,以 to buy 為例
肯定句 否定句 疑問句
I had been buying I hadn't been buying Had I been buying?
You had been buying You hadn't been buying Had you been buying?
She had been buying She hadn't been buying? Had she been buying
We had been buying We hadn't been buying Had we been buying?
They had been buying They hadn't been buying Had they been buying?