過去完成式

過去完成式的作用

過去完成式涉及稍久以前發生的事,可以清楚表達某件事比另一件事還要早發生。哪件事先被提及並不重要——時態自然會表明哪件事先發生。

在這些例句中,「事件一」最早發生,而「事件二」後來才發生,或是不久前才發生:

事件一 事件二
John had gone out when I arrived in the office.
事件一 事件二
I had saved my document before the computer crashed.
事件二 事件一
When they arrived we had already started cooking.
事件二 事件一
He was very tired because he hadn't slept well.

過去完成式的構成

英語中的過去完成式是由兩個要素形成:動詞 have 的過去式 had + 主要動詞的過去分詞。

主詞 had 過去分詞
肯定句
She had given.
否定句
She hadn't asked.
疑問句
Had they arrived?
否定疑問句
Hadn't you finished?
過去完成式,以 to decide 為例:
肯定句 否定句 疑問句
I had decided. I hadn't decided. Had I decided?
You had decided. You hadn't decided. Had you decided?
She had decided. She hadn't decided. Had she decided?
We had decided. We hadn't decided. Had we decided?
They had decided. They hadn't decided. Had they decided?

在過去完成式用「just」

「just」用於過去完成式時,涉及某個動作比剛才再稍早一點發生。例如:

  • The train had just left when I arrived at the station.
  • She had just left the room when the police arrived.
  • I had just put the washing out when it started to rain.