現在分詞

多數動詞的現在分詞都有「動詞原型+ing」的型態,用法有很多種。

將現在分詞用為動詞進行式的一部分
舉例
  • I am working.
  • He was singing.
  • They have been walking.
  • We will be staying.
  • She would have been expecting me.
現在分詞與表達行進、姿勢的動詞連用

這種結構在動詞 to go 上特別常見。

舉例
  • She went shopping.
  • I go running every morning.
  • He lay looking up at the clouds.
  • She came running towards me.
現在分詞與感知動詞連用

這種用法的句型為:動詞 + 受詞 + 現在分詞。當這類句子包含的是零不定詞(也就是不含 to 的不定詞)而不是分詞時,意思上會有所不同。不定詞涉及的是一個完成的動作,而現在分詞涉及的是持續性的動作。

舉例
  • I heard someone singing.
  • He saw his friend walking along the road.
  • I can smell something burning!
  • I watched the birds flying away.
現在分詞用為形容詞
舉例
  • It was an amazing film.
  • Dark billowing clouds often precede a storm.
  • He was trapped inside the burning house.
  • Many of his paintings show the setting sun.
現在分詞與 spend 和 waste 等動詞連用

這類動詞的句型是:動詞 + 表達時間/金錢的詞語 + 現在分詞

舉例
  • My boss spends two hours a day travelling to work.
  • Don't waste time playing computer games!
  • They've spent the whole day shopping.
  • I wasted money buying this game.
現在分詞與 catch 和 find 等動詞的連用

使用這些動詞的句型為:動詞 + 受詞 + 現在分詞。用在 catch 後的現在分詞,往往有「某件事造成滋擾或憤怒」之意。跟動詞 find 的情況不同,沒有情緒的意味。

舉例
  • If I catch you stealing my apples again, there'll be trouble!
  • Don't let him catch you reading his letters.
  • I caught him going through my bag.
  • We found some money lying on the ground.
  • They found their mother sitting in the garden.
用現在分詞表達兩個動作同時進行

當兩個動作同時發生,而且是由同個人或同件事物所做的動作,我們就會用現在分詞來描述其中一個動作。當某個動作緊接在另一個動作後,而這個動作是由同個人或事物所做的;我們就可以將第一個動作用現在分詞來表達。

舉例
  • Whistling to himself, he walked down the road. = He whistled to himself as he walked down the road.
  • They went laughing out into the snow. = They laughed as they went out into the snow.
  • Dropping the gun, she put her hands in the air. = She dropped the gun and put her hands in the air.
  • Putting on his coat, he left the house. = He put on his coat and left the house.
用現在分詞來說明原因

現在分詞可以用來取代以 as、since、because 為首的片語。在這種用法中,分詞片語說明某個動作的理由或原因。

舉例
  • Feeling hungry, he went into the kitchen and opened the fridge.
  • Being poor, he didn't spend much on clothes.
  • Knowing that his mother was coming, he cleaned the flat.
  • He whispered, thinking his brother was still asleep.