現在完成進行式

現在完成進行式的構成

現在完成進行式是由兩個要素構成:Be 動詞的現在完成式 (have/has been),加上主要動詞(原型+ing)的現在分詞。

主詞 has/have been 動詞原型 + ing
She has been swimming

肯定句:She has been / She's been running.
否定句:She hasn't been running.
疑問句:Has she been running?
否定型疑問句:Hasn't she been running?

現在完成進行式,以「to live」為例:
肯定句 否定句 疑問句
I have been living I haven't been living Have I been living?
You have been living You haven't been living Have you been living?
He, she, it has been living He hasn't been living Has she been living?
We have been living We haven't been living Have we been living?
You have been living You haven't been living Have you been living?
They have been living They haven't been living Have they been living?

現在完成進行式的作用

現在完成進行式涉及以前到現在一段不明確的時間,談的是某件已經發生的事,但也許還沒有結束,強調的是動作的過程產生的結果,而且這個過程可能還會持續著,或者可能才剛結束。

始於過去且當下仍在持續的動作

She has been waiting for you all day (= 而且她現在還在等待).
I've been working on this report since eight o'clock this morning (= 而且我還沒做完).
They have been travelling since last October (= 而且他們還沒回家).

剛結束的動作,但說話者要強調的是這個動作產生的結果,或對現在造成的影響

She has been cooking since last night (= 而且桌上的食物看起來很美味).
It's been raining (= 街道上還是濕的).
Someone's been eating my chips (= 半包沒了).

不用在進行式的動詞

對於不用在進行式的動詞,就使用現在完成式。例如:I've wanted to visit China for years.
She's known Robert since she was a child.
I've hated that music since I first heard it.
I've heard a lot about you recently.
We've understood everything.
we've heard this morning.