代名詞

代名詞取代了名詞。會需要用上不同的代名詞,取決於兩個要素:第一是被取代的名詞,第二是名詞在句中的作用。在英語中,只有第三人稱單數的代名詞才會表明名詞的性別。而第二人稱複數與第二人稱單數相同,反身代名詞則除外。

  主格代名詞 受格代名詞 所有格形容詞(限定詞) 所有格代名詞 反身代名詞或強調代名詞
第一人稱單數 I me my mine myself
第二人稱單數 you you your yours yourself
第三人稱單數(男性/陽性) he him his his himself
第三人稱單數(女性/陰性) she her her hers herself
第三人稱單數(中性) it it its   itself
第一人稱複數 we us our ours ourselves
第二人稱複數 you you your yours yourselves
第三人稱複數 they them their theirs themselves

主格代名詞

主格代名詞取代了句中的主詞。通常使用第三人稱的主格代名詞,是為了要避免重複稱呼原主詞。

例句
  • I am 16.
  • You seem lost.
  • Jim is angry, and he wants Sally to apologize.
  • This table is old. It needs to be repainted.
  • We aren't coming.
  • They don't like pancakes.

受格代名詞

受格代名詞用來取代句中的直接受詞或間接受詞。

例句
  • Give the book to me.
  • The teacher wants to talk to you.
  • Jake is hurt because Bill hit him.
  • Rachid recieved a letter from her last week.
  • Mark can't find it.
  • Don't be angry with us.
  • Tell them to hurry up!

所有格形容詞(限定詞)

所有格形容詞並不是代名詞,而是限定詞。但認識代名詞的同時,不妨也一起認識限定詞,因為限定詞的型態跟所有格代名詞很相似。所有格形容詞的作用就如形容詞,因此它的位置是放在其修飾的名詞前,並不會像代名詞一樣取代了名詞。

例句
  • Did mother find my shoes?
  • Mrs. Baker wants to see your homework.
  • Can Jake bring over his baseball cards?
  • Samantha will fix her bike tomorrow.
  • The cat broke its leg.
  • This is our house.
  • Where is their school?

所有格代名詞

所有格代名詞取代了名詞的所有格,成為句中的主詞或受詞。由於原來的名詞被代名詞取代了,因此務必確認對方知道它指的是何者,才能直接用代名詞。

例句
  • This bag is mine.
  • Yours is not blue.
  • That bag looks like his.
  • These shoes are not hers.
  • That car is ours.
  • Theirs is parked in the garage.

反身代名詞和強調代名詞

反身代名詞和強調代名詞看起來完全一樣,但在句中卻有不同的作用。

反身代名詞會重新提及語句中的主詞,因為做出該動作的主詞本身也是直接受格或間接受格。只有特定的動詞可以用反身代名詞。您不能將反身代名詞從句中移除,因為這樣會導致其餘的句子文法有誤。

例句
  • I told myself to calm down.
  • You cut yourself on this nail?
  • He hurt himself on the stairs.
  • She found herself in a dangerous part of town.
  • The cat threw itself under my car!
  • We blame ourselves for the fire.
  • The children can take care of themselves.

強調代名詞強調語中的主詞,它並不是動作的受詞。強調代名詞一律可從句中移除,而且也不會嚴重影響了整句話的意思。強調代名詞可緊接在主詞後,或是放在句尾。

例句
  • I made these cookies myself.
  • You yourself asked Jake to come.
  • The Pope himself pardoned Mr. Brown.
  • My teacher didn't know the answer herself.
  • The test itself wasn't scary, but my teacher certainly is.
  • We would like to finish the renovation before Christmas ourselves.
  • They themselves told me the lost shoe wasn't a problem.