未來簡單式 | 英語文法 | EF

未來簡單式

未來簡單式的作用

未來簡單式涉及現在以後的時間,以及表達事實或肯定性。在這種情況下,並沒有所謂的「態度」。

未來簡單式用於:

  • 預測未來的事:
    It will rain tomorrow.
  • 以「I will...」或「We will...」來表達自發性的決定:
    I'll pay for the tickets by credit card.
  • 表達意願:I'll do the washing-up.
    He'll carry your bag for you.
  • 在否定句中表達不願意:
    The baby won't eat his soup.
    I won't leave until I've seen the manager!
  • 用「Shall I...?」的疑問句來表示提議:
    Shall I open the window?
  • 用「Shall we...?」的疑問句來表示建議:
    Shall we go to the cinema tonight?
  • 用「Shall I...?」的疑問句來詢問建議或指示:
    What shall I tell the boss about this money?
  • 以「You will...」來表示命令:
    You will do exactly as I say.
  • 在疑問句「Will you...?」來表示邀請:
    Will you come to the dance with me?
    Will you marry me?

註:在現代英語中,will 比 shall 更廣為使用。shall 主要與第一人稱( I 或 we)連用來表達提議或建議,或詢問建議(請參考以上例句)。而通常只有在文學或詩中,才會看到 shall 與其他人稱 (you, he, she, they) 連用的例子,例如:"With rings on her fingers and bells on her toes, She shall have music wherever she goes."

未來簡單式的構成

未來簡單式是由兩個要素組成:will / shall + 不帶有 to 的不定詞

主詞 will 不帶有 to 的不定詞
肯定句
I will go
I shall go
否定句
They will not see
They won't see
疑問句
Will she ask?
否定疑問句
Won't they try?
縮寫

I will = I'll
We will = we'll
You will = you'll
He will = he'll
She will = she'll
They will = they'll
Will not = won't

「it will」通常不會用縮寫。

未來簡單式,以 to see 為例

肯定句 否定句 疑問句 否定疑問句
I will see I won't see Will I see? Won't I see?
*I shall see   *Shall I see?  
You will see You won't see Will you see? Won't you see?
He will see He won't see Will he see? Won't he see?
We will see We won't see Will we see? Won't we see?
*We shall see   *Shall we see?  
They will see They won't see Will they see? Won't they see?

*shall 是過時的用法;但在特定的情況下,以第一人稱(I 或 we) 為主詞的疑問句或否定句上,使用 shall 會比 will 來得更普遍(請參考以上例句)。