過去簡單式

過去簡單式的作用

過去簡單式用來談論以前完成的動作。持續多久並不重要,動作的發生時間可能是不久之前或很久以前。

舉例
  • John Cabot sailed to America in 1498.
  • My father died last year.
  • He lived in Fiji in 1976.
  • We crossed the Channel yesterday.

每當談到某事發生的時間,一律要用過去簡單式;因此它和過去特定的時間詞有關。

  • 頻率:often, sometimes, always
    I sometimes walked home at lunchtime.
    I often brought my lunch to school.
  • 明確的時間點:last week, when I was a child, yesterday, six weeks ago
    We saw a good film last week.
    Yesterday, I arrived in Geneva.
    She finished her work atseven o'clock
    I went to the theatre last night
  • 不明確的時間點:the other day, ages ago, a long time ago People lived in caves a long time ago.
  • She played the piano when she was a child.

註:「ago」這個字非常好用,可以表達現在到過去的時間有多長。ago 一律放在一段時間之後:a week ago、three years ago、a minute ago 等。

要注意:也許在您的母語中,也有與英語的過去簡單式類似的時態;但意思上不見得相同。

過去簡單式的構成

規則動詞在過去簡單式的型態
肯定句
主詞 + 動詞原型 + ed  
I skipped.  
否定句
主詞 + did not + 不帶有 to 的不定詞
They didn't go.
疑問句
Did + 主詞 + 不帶有 to 的不定詞
Did she arrive?
否定疑問句
Did not + 主詞 + 不帶有 to 的不定詞
Didn't you play?
to walk
肯定句 否定句 疑問句
I walked I didn't walk Did I walk?
You walked You didn't walk Did you walk?
He walked He didn't walk Did he walk?
We walked We didn't walk Did we walk?
They walked They didn't walk Did they walk?
to be、to have、to do 的過去簡單式
主詞 動詞
  Be Have Do
I was had did
You were had did
He/She/It was had did
We were had did
You were had did
They were had did

關於肯定句、否定句和疑問句句型的小筆記

肯定句

過去簡單式的肯定句非常簡單。

  • I was in Japan last year
  • She had a headache yesterday.
  • We did our homework last night.
否定句和疑問句

「do」為一般動詞,在過去簡單式中,否定句和疑問句會用到助動詞「do」。例如:We didn't do our homework last night.
在過去簡單式的「have」否定型態,通常會以助動詞「do」構成,但有時候只要加「not」或縮寫「n't」即可。

在過去簡單式的「have」疑問型態,一般會用助動詞「do」。

舉例
  • They weren't in Rio last summer.
  • We didn't have any money.
  • We didn't have time to visit the Eiffel Tower.
  • We didn't do our exercises this morning.
  • Were they in Iceland last January?
  • Did you have a bicycle when you were young?
  • Did you do much climbing in Switzerland?

註:對於所有過去簡單式的動詞,在否定型態和疑問型態上,一律用助動詞「did」。

過去簡單式的不規則動詞

過去簡單式有幾個不規則動詞,以下是幾個最常用的不規則動詞。

to go
  • He went to a club last night.
  • Did he go to the cinema last night?
  • He didn't go to bed early last night.
to give
  • We gave her a doll for her birthday.
  • They didn't give John their new address.
  • Did Barry give you my passport?
to come
  • My parents came to visit me last July.
  • We didn't come because it was raining.
  • Did he come to your party last week?