在使用轉述句時的時態變化

在直述句改為轉述句時,一般要將直述句的時態往前推:
She said, "I am tired." = She said that she was tired.

直述句的說法 對應的轉述句
現在簡單式 過去簡單式
"I always drink coffee", she said She said that she always drank coffee.
現在進行式 過去進行式
"I am reading a book", he explained. He explained that he was reading a book
過去簡單式 過去完成式
"Bill arrived on Saturday", he said. He said that Bill had arrived on Saturday.
現在完成式 過去完成式
"I have been to Spain", he told me. He told me that he had been to Spain.
過去完成式 過去完成式
"I had just turned out the light," he explained. He explained that he had just turned out the light.
現在完成進行式 過去完成進行式
They complained, "We have been waiting for hours". They complained that they had been waiting for hours.
過去進行式 過去完成進行式
"We were living in Paris", they told me. They told me that they had been living in Paris.
未來式 現在條件式
"I will be in Geneva on Monday", he said. He said that he would be in Geneva on Monday.
未來進行式 條件進行式
She said, "I'll be using the car next Friday". She said that she would be using the car next Friday.

如果轉述動詞是現在式,或原陳述句的內容對現在來說依然是如此,就不必改變時態。例如:

  • He says he has missed the train but he'll catch the next one.
  • We explained that it is very difficult to find our house.

 

這些情態助動詞在轉述句並不會改變:might, could, would, should, ought to

  • We explained, "It could be difficult to find our house." = We explained that it could be difficult to find our house.
  • She said, "I might bring a friend to the party." = She said that she might bring a friend to the party.