動名詞

動名詞跟現在分詞看起來完全一樣,但如果去理解兩者之間的差別,會很有幫助。動名詞雖然看起來像動詞,但作用上跟名詞是一樣的。動名詞的一些用法都會在本頁上說明,您也可以參考另一頁:接動名詞的動詞

用作主詞的動名詞
例句
  • Eating people is wrong.
  • Hunting tigers is dangerous.
  • Flying makes me nervous.
  • Brushing your teeth is important.
  • Smoking causes lung cancer.
動名詞用作 Be 動詞的補語
舉例
  • One of his duties is attending meetings.
  • The hardest thing about learning English is understanding the gerund.
  • One of life's pleasures is having breakfast in bed.
動名詞接在介系詞後

當動詞接在介系詞後,就必須用動名詞。對於某些以介系詞結尾的片語也是如此,例如 in spite of 和 there's no point in 之類的片語。

舉例
  • Can you sneeze without opening your mouth?
  • She is good at painting.
  • She avoided him by walking on the opposite side of the road.
  • We arrived in Madrid after driving all night.
  • My father decided against postponing his trip to Hungary.
  • There's no point in waiting.
  • In spite of missing the train, we arrived on time.
動名詞用在片語動詞後

片語動詞是由一個動詞 + 介系詞或副詞組成。

舉例
  • When will you give up smoking?
  • She always puts off going to the dentist.
  • He kept on asking for money.
  • Jim ended up buying a new TV after his old one broke.

有些動詞片語會包含介系詞 to,例如 to look forward to、to take to、to be accustomed to、to get around to 和 to be used to。在這些情況下,務必要分辨「to」是介系詞還是不定詞,因為這會決定後面是否要接動名詞。您可以先查查看 to 是介系詞還是不定詞的一部分。如果可以把代名詞 it 放在 to 後,可以構成有意義的句子,那麼 to 這個字就是介系詞,而且後面必須接動名詞。

舉例
  • I look forward to hearing from you soon.
  • I look forward to it.
  • I am used to waiting for buses.
  • I am used to it.
  • She didn't really take to studying English.
  • She didn't really take to it.
  • When will you get around to mowing the grass?
  • When will you get around to it?
複合名詞中的動名詞

在使用動名詞的複合名詞中,很顯然就是名詞的意思,而不是持續性動詞。例如,「swimming pool」這個字指的是一個可以游泳的池子,而非「游泳中的池子」。

舉例
  • I am giving Sally a driving lesson.
  • They have a swimming pool in their back yard.
  • I bought some new running shoes.
動名詞接在某些詞語後

在 can't help、can't stand、to be worth 和 it's no use 等詞語後,必須接動名詞。

舉例
  • She couldn't help falling in love with him.
  • I can't stand being stuck in traffic jams.
  • It's no use trying to escape.
  • It might be worth phoning the station to check the time of the train.