字尾加 ing 的動詞

字尾有 ing 的動詞不是「現在分詞」就是「動名詞」,這兩種動詞型態看起來是一樣的,差異在於它們在句中的作用。

現在分詞

現在分詞普遍用於動詞進行式的一部份、感知動詞後、行進動詞後或用作形容詞。

現在分詞用作動詞進行式的一部份

現在分詞是所有進行式時態的動詞的要素,包括過去進行式、現在進行式、未來進行式、進行條件式等。助動詞會表明時態,而現在分詞則維持不變。

舉例
  • He is painting.
  • She was waiting.
  • They will be coming.
  • We would be staying.
  • I would have been leaving.
在感知動詞後的現在分詞

現在分詞可以用在感知動詞後,表達被感受到的動作。句型為:動詞 + 受詞 + 現在分詞。

舉例
  • We saw him swimming across the pond.
  • I watched her painting Sarah's portrait.
  • I couldn't hear her singing because of the noise.
  • I would like to see you knitting sometime.
表示行進、動作或姿勢的動詞後面接現在分詞,表達並行的動作。
舉例
  • She sat looking at the sea.
  • He walks reading his newspaper.
  • I cook listening to the radio.
  • Sally lay listening to the bugs in the grass.
將現在分詞用作形容詞
舉例
  • Did you read that amazing book?
  • This movie is so exciting!
  • His economics class is boring.

進一步了解如何使用現在分詞

動名詞

動名詞雖然看起來像動詞,但它跟名詞的作用和用法都一樣。

將動名詞用作句子的主詞
舉例
  • Eating people is wrong.
  • Driving too fast is dangerous.
  • Walking is good for you.
  • Your knitting is beautiful.
介系詞後接動名詞
舉例
  • Can you sneeze without opening your mouth?
  • She is good at painting.
  • I was the fastest at climbing the rope.
  • He learns music by listening to the chords.
在特定動詞後加動名詞
舉例
  • I like cooking.
  • He enjoys walking.
  • They hate milking cows.
  • I can imagine drifting away in a balloon.
複合名詞中的動名詞
舉例
  • I took her to her driving lessons.
  • We are going to the swimming pool.
  • My uncle does a lot of bird-watching.
  • I found this pie by dumpster-diving.

進一步了解如何使用動名詞